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Conversion Tables


Volume Conversion Tables


cubic yards
Multiply By To Obtain Multiply By To Obtain
acre-feet 43,560 cu. feet cubic meters 1,057 quarts (US liq.)
acre-feet 325,900 gallons cubic yards 46,656 cubic inches
bushels 35.24 liters cubic yards 0.7646 cubic meters
bushels 4 pecks 0.7646 cubic meters
cubic centimeters 3.53E-05 cu. feet cubic yards 202 gallons (US liq.)
cubic centimeters 0.06102374 cu. inches cubic yards 764.6 liters
cubic centimeters 2.64E-04 gallon (US liq.) cups 236.588 cubic cm
cubic centimeters 0.002113 pint (US liq.) gallons 3,785.412 cubic cm
cubic centimeters 0.001057 quart (US liq.) gallons 0.1337 cubic feet
cubic feet 28,320 cu. cm gallons 231 cu. inches
cubic feet 1,728 cu. inches gallons 0.004951 cu. yards
cubic feet 0.02832 cu. meters Pounds 0.45 Kgs
cubic feet 0.03703704 cu. yards gallons 3.785 liters
cubic feet 7.48052 gallons (US liq.) gallons (liq. British imp.) 1.20095 gallons (US liq.)
cubic feet 28.32 liters gallons (US) 0.83267 gallons (imp.)
cubic feet 59.84 pints (US liq.) liters 0.03531 cu. feet
cubic feet 29.92 quarts (US liq) liters 61.02 cu. inches
cubic inches 16.39 cu. cm liters 0.2642 gallons (US liq.)
cubic inches 0.0005787 cu. feet liters 2.113 pints (US liq.)
cubic inches 1.64E-05 cu. meters liters 1.057 quarts (US liq.)
cubic inches 2.14E-05 cubic yards ounces (fluid) 1.805 cu. inches
cubic inches 0.004329 gallons ounces (fluid) 0.02957 liters
cubic inches 0.03463 pints (US liq.) pecks (US) 0.25 bushels
cubic inches 0.01732 quarts (US liq.) pints (US dry) 0.5506105 liters
cubic meters 35.31 cubic feet pints (US liquid) 0.4731765 liters
cubic meters 61,023 cubic inches quarts (dry) 67.2 cu. inches
cubic meters 1.307951 cubic yards quarts (liquid) 0.03342 cu. feet
cubic meters 264.2 gallons (US liq.) quarts (liquid) 57.75 cu. inches
cubic meters 2,113 pints (US liq.) quarts (liquid) 0.9463 liters
teaspoons (US) 4.93 milliliters tablespoons (US) 14.79 milliliters


Length Conversion Tables

Multiply By To Obtain Multiply By To Obtain Multiply By To Obtain
angstroms 3.94E-06 inches inches 0.00001578 miles miles (statute) 1.609 kilometers
centimeters 0.03281 feet inches 25.4 millimeters miles (statute) 1,609 meters
centimeters 0.3937 inches inches 1,000 mils miles (statute) 0.8684 miles (nautical)
centimeters 393.7 mils inches 0.02777778 yards miles (statute) 1,760 yards
centimeters 0.01094 yards kilometers 3280.84 feet millimeters 3.28E-03 feet
fathoms 1.828804 meter kilometers 3.94E+04 inches millimeters 0.03937 inches
fathoms 6 feet kilometers 0.6214 miles millimeters 39.37 mils
feet 30.48 centimeters kilometers 1.00E+06 millimeters mils 2.54E-03 centimeters
feet 0.0003048 kilometers kilometers 1,094 yards mils 0.001 inches
feet 0.3048 meters leagues 3 miles (approx.) rods 5.029 meters
feet 0.0001645 miles (naut.) meters 3.281 feet rods 16.5 feet
feet 0.0001894 miles (stat.) meters 39.37 inches spans 9 inches
feet 304.8 millimeters meters 5.40E-04 miles (nautical) yards 91.44 centimeters
feet 12,000 mils meters 6.21E-04 miles (statute) yards 9.14E-04 kilometers
furlongs 0.125 miles (US) meters 1.094 yards yards 0.9144 meters
furlongs 660 feet miles (nautical) 6080.27 feet yards 4.93E-04 miles (nautical)
inches 2.54 centimeters miles (nautical) 1.853 kilometers yards 5.68E-04 miles (statute)
inches 0.08333333 feet miles (statute) 5280 feet yards 914.4 millimeters
inches 0.0254 meters miles (statute) 6.34E+04 inches

Flowrate Conversion Tables

Multiply By To Obtain
cubic feet/min 472 mL/sec
cubic feet/min 0.125 gallons/sec
cubic feet/min 28.31 liters/min
cubic feet/min 1.699 m3/hr
cubic feet/min 0.1247l gallons/sec
cubic feet/min 0.472 liters/sec
cubic feet/min 62.43 lbs of water/min
cubic feet/min 4.72E-04 m3/s
cubic feet/sec 0.646317 million gallons/day
cubic feet/sec 448.831 gallons/min
cubic feet/sec 0.0283168 m3/s
cubic meter/min 0.0166667 m3/s
cubic meters/day 264.172 gallons/day
cubic meters/day 0.0002642 million gallons/day
cubic meters/sec 35.3147 cu.ft./sec
cubic meters/sec 22.8245 million gallons/day
cubic meters/sec 15,850.3 gallons/min
gallons/day 4.38E-08 m3/s
gallons/hr 63.1 mL/min
gallons/hr 0.134 cu.ft./hr
gallons/min 0.002228 cu.ft./sec
gallons/min 0.06308 liters/sec
gallons/min 8.0208 cu.ft./hr
gallons/min 0.227 m3/hr
gallons/min 3.785 liters/minl
gallons/min 6.31E-05 m3/s
liters/hour 2.78E-07 m3/s
liters/min 1.67E-05 m3/s
liters/min 5.89E-04 cu.ft./sec
liters/min 4.40E-03 gallons/sec
liters/sec 22,824.5 gallons/day
liters/sec 0.0228 million gallons/day
million gallons/day 1.54723 cu.ft./sec
million gallons/day 659.4 gallons/min
oz/min 29.57 mL/min


Change to Multiply By
Fahrenheit Celsius -32 & x 0.5556
Celsius Fahrenheit x 1.8 & +32




It is difficult to "eyeball" the amount of water passing through a pump, biofilter, or waterfall. Because these flow rates are often critical to the well-being of a pond, it becomes necessary to accurately measure these quantities.

By measuring the amount ot time required to fill a five gallon bucket, an accurate flow figure can be established.

The following table shows the correlation betweeen the amount of time required to fill a five gallon bucket and the total Gallons Per Minute (GPM) and Gallons Per Hour (GPH) figures.

Secs Gals/Min Gals/Hr
1 300 18,000
2 150 9,000
3 100 6,000
4 75 4,500
5 60 3,600
6 50 3,000
7 43 2,570
8 37.5 2,250
9 33.3 2,000
10 30 1,800
15 20 1,200
20 15 900
25 12 720
30 10 600
35 8.6 515
40 7.5 450
45 6.7 400
50 6 360
55 5.5 325
60 5 300
70 4.3 257
80 3.75 225
90 3.33 200
100 3 180
150 2 120
200 1.5 90
300 1 60


Common Area formulas


Square = length times width
Rectangle = same as square
Circle = pi times twice radius
Triangle = one half of base times height
Pi= 3.14

Conversion for Various Volumes to Attain One Part Per Million

Amount active ingredient Unit of volume Parts per million
2.71 pounds acre-foot 1 ppm
1.235 grams acre-foot 1 ppm
1.24 kilograms acre-foot 1 ppm
0.0283 grams cubic foot 1 ppm
1 milligram liter 1 ppm
8.34 pounds million gallons 1 ppm
1 gram cubic meter 1 ppm
0.0038 grams gallon 1 ppm
3.8 grams thousand gallons 1 ppm

Useful Conversion Factors (volumes refer to water)

1 acre = 43,560 square feet
= 4,840 square yards
(circular) = 235,4 feet (diameter)
(square) = 208,71 feet/side
1 acre-foot (1 acre–1 foot deep) = 43,560 cubic feet
= 325,850 gallons
= 2,718,144 pounds
1 cubic foot = 7.48 gallons
= 1,728 cubic inches
= 62.43 pounds
1 gallon = 8.34 pounds
1 quart = 4 cups
= 32 fluid ounces
1 pint = 2 cups
= 16 fluid ounces
1 cup = 8 fluid ounces
= 8.344 ounces
1 fluid ounce = 1.043 ounces

Conversions in Length

To
From Inches
(in)
Feet
(ft)
Yard
(yd)
centimeter
(cm)
Meter
(m)
in 1 0.0833 0.0278 2.540 0.0254
ft 12 1 0.3333 30.48 0.3048
yd 36 3 1 91.44 0.9144
cm 0.3937 0.0328 0.0109 1 100
m 39.37 3.281 1.0936 100 1

Conversions in Weight

To
From Ounce
(oz)
Pound
(lb)
gram
(g)
kilogram
(kg)
oz 1 0.0625 28.35 0.0284
lb 16 1 453.6 0.4536
g 0.0353 0.0022 1 0.OO1
kg 35.27 2.205 1000 1



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Amount of Dissolved Oxygen (ppm) in Pure Water at Different Water Temperatures (at sea level)

Temperature (F) Approximate PPM
35° 13.4
40° 12.7
45° 11.8
50° 10.9
55° 10.2
60° 9.7
65° 9.2
70° 8.7
75° 8.3
80° 7.9


Temperature

Celsius (º C) Fahrenheit (º F) Celsius (º C) Fahrenheit (º F)
0 32   18 64.4
1 33.8   19 66.2
2 35.6   20 68
3 37.4   21 69.8
4 39.2   22 71.6
5 41   23 73.4
6 42.8   24 75.2
7 44.6   25 77
8 46.4   26 78.8
9 48.2   27 80.6
10 50   28 82.4
11 51.8   29 84.2
12 53.6   30 86
13 55.4   31 87.8
14 57.2   32 89.6
15 59   33 91.4
16 60.8   34 93.2
17 62.6   35 95

Feet and Meters Conversion Tables

1 foot = 0.305 meter
1 meter = 3.28 feet
1 sq. foot = 0.093 meter
1 sq. meter = 10.76 sq. feet
1 cu. foot = 0.028 meter
1 cu. meter = 35.32 cu. feet


Inches and Centimeters

1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 cm = 0.394 inch
1 sq. inch = 6.452 sq. cm
1 sq. cm = 0.1555 sq. inch
1 cu. inch = 16.387 cu. cm
1 cu. cm = 0.061 cu. inch


Converting from one unit of measure to another within the metric system is much easier than converting within the English system. The table below shows the most common conversion factors.



Metric Units

When you have an amount in these units: Multiply by this number: To get the equivalent in the units below:
milligrams (mg) 1000 micrograms (μg)
grams (g) 1000 milligrams (mg)
kilograms (kg) 1000 grams (g)
cubic meters (m3) 1000 liters (L or l)
microgram per Liter (μg/L) 1 milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3)

Note that the value of each metric conversion factor is indicated by the prefixes used:

  • * Milli means “one-thousandth,”
  • * Micro means “one-millionth,”
  • * Kilo means “one thousand.”


Ounces, Grams, Pounds, Kilograms

1 oz = 28.35 grams
1 gram = 0.035 oz
1 lb = 16 oz
1 lb = 0.454 kilograms
1 kilogram = 2.2 lbs


Composition of Dry Air at Sea Level

Component % by Volume % by Weight
Nitrogen 78.084 75.5
Oxygen 20.946 23.2
Argon .934 1.33
Carbon Dioxide .035 .049

Molecular weight: 28.975 lbs/mol Specific volume at 70ºF and 1 atm: 13.346 ft3/lb (.8333 m3/kg) Specific gravity (gas): 1.000 Density at 70ºF and 1 atm: .07492 lb/ft3

Properties of Water

Density Of Fresh Water Density Of Sea Water Density Of Ice
Temp (ºF) Lbs/ Ft3 Temp (ºF) Lbs per Cubic Foot Temp (ºF) Lbs/ Ft3
32 62.410 30 64.250 -50 57.670
40 62.418 40 64.200 -40 57.625
50 62.401 50 64.170 -30 57.600
60 62.358 60 64.100 -20 57.582
70 62.293 70 64.020 -10 57.541
80 62.208 80 63.950 0 57.105
90 62.105 90 63.800 10 57.490
100 61.986 100 63.700 20 57.455


Saturated Vapor Pressure of Fresh Water

Temp (ºF) Lbs/ In2 Temp (ºF) Lbs/ In2
32 .089 70 .363
40 .122 80 .507
50 .178 90 .698
60 .256 100 .950


Density of Air (1 atm)

Temp (ºF) Lbs/ Ft3 Temp (ºF) Lbs/ Ft3
-10 .088 50 .078
0 .086 60 .076
10 .085 70 .075
20 .083 80 .074
30 .081 90 .072
40 .079 100 .071

Properties of Pure Oxygen

One gallon liquid oxygen ≅ 115 ft3 gas

One liter liquid oxygen ≅ .86 m3 gas

1 lb liquid oxygen ≅ 12.1 ft3 (gas)

1 lb liquid oxygen ≅ 342 liters (gas)

1 cu.ft = 28.3 liters


Gas Phase

Specific volume at 70ºF and 1 atm: 12.08 ft3/lb (.7513 m3/kg)

Density at 70ºF and 1 atm: .0828 lb/ft3

Specific gravity: 1.1


Liquid Phase

Specific volume: .105 gal/lb (.877 L/kg)

Density: 9.52 lbs/gal (1.141 kg/L)



Saturated Vapor Pressure of Fresh Water

Temp (ºF) Lbs/ In2 Temp (ºF) Lbs/ In2
32 .089 70 .363
40 122 80 .507
50 .178 90 .698
60 .256 100 .950


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The ability of water to hold oxygen is a direct function of temperature. Briefly stated, cold water is capable of holding more oxygen than warm water. The table below shows this relationship.

Oxygen Solubility As A Function Of Temperature

O2 ppm
0 32.0 14.6
1 33.8 14.2
2 34.8 13.8
3 37.4 13.5
4 39.2 13.1
5 41.0 12.8
6 42.8 12.5
7 44.6 12.2
8 46.4 11.9
9 48.2 11.6
10 50.0 11.3
11 51.8 11.0
12 53.6 10.8
13 55.4 10.6
14 57.2 10.3
15 59.0 10.1
16 60.8 9.9
17 62.6 9.7
18 64.4 9.5
19 66.2 9.3
20 68.0 9.1
21 69.8 8.9
22 71.6 8.7
23 73.4 8.6
24 75.2 8.4
25 77.0 8.2
26 78.8 8.1
27 80.6 8.0
28 83.4 7.8
29 84.2 7.7
30 86.0 7.5
31 87.8 7.4
32 89.6 7.3
33 91.4 7.2
34 93.2 7.1
35 95.0 6.9
36 96.8 6.8
37 98.6 6.7
38 100.4 6.6
39 102.2 6.5
40 104.0 6.4

Note: The chart above assumes standard sea level barometric conditions and a water sample containing not more than 0.1% salinity with normal KH/GH/pH values.







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